coconut water journal

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The authors concluded that Raman spectroscopy has potential as a rapid accurate analytical method for the detection of adulteration in this product, with the ability to discern small abnormalities in sugar ratios within coconut water (45). Freshly extracted coconut water is not stable. In: Ahuja M., Jain S. (eds) Biodiversity and Conservation of Woody Plants, Sustainable Development and Biodiversity, vol 17. Posted June 1st, … Total sugars (Brix) in coconut water as a function of cultivar and maturity, (Data from Jackson et al. Activated charcoal can be made from the shell (endocarp). Coconut water is what is inside a young coconut. [17]. Based on our review of the literature we make three recommendations: Experimental exploration of the use of the carbon isotope ratio of extracted protein as an internal standard for carbon SIRMS should be undertaken. This raises serious problems in attempting to test processed coconut water samples for authenticity apart from the question of their potability. Kalman DS, Feldman S, Krieger DR, Bloomer RJ. TCW is the most nutritious healthy drink from a palm tree, is a natural isotonic drink that has content similar to our body's blood plasma 11 . Irene Dini, in Functional and Medicinal Beverages, 2019. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2017;27:279-284. Fat is made up of smaller molecules called fatty acids, and there are several types of saturated fatty acids in coconut oil. The volume of coconut water is within the range (100-600 mL) reported in the literature [4], being higher in green coconut water than in mature coconut water [1,6]. The use of pesticides appears essential to the productivity and preservation of coconut palms. Sorbitol concentrations and formol values (20) have also been considered to be useful in characterisation of young versus mature coconut water. The sugars data exhibit some variability, as would be expected for natural products; however, they distinguish coconut water from fruit juices in general which must meet minimum Brix levels (typically 7–11.2% with some exceptions) (19). Depending on soil conditions, coconut water ranges from very sweet to neutral to even slightly acidic in taste. The coconut water exhibited carbon isotope ratios between –26.40 and –23.76%. We report the successful use of coconut water as a short-term intravenous hydration fluid for a Solomon Island patient, a laboratory analysis of the local coconuts, and a review of previously documented intravenous coconut use. View abstract. Ounce per ounce, most unflavored coconut water contains 5.45 calories, 1.3 grams of sugar, 61 milligrams of potassium, and 5.45 milligrams of sodium. For example, Prades et al. Uses . D Thorburn Burns, E -L Johnston, Michael J Walker, Authenticity and the Potability of Coconut Water - a Critical Review, Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Volume 103, Issue 3, May-June 2020, Pages 800–806, https://doi.org/10.1093/jaocint/qsz008. Screening for milk protein should be considered albeit evidence for its inclusion in coconut water is sparse. The CW is low in calories and fat. Search criterion “coconut,” searched on 15th June 2019, search date range between 01 August 2011 and 15th June 2019. There are only a … Although water from immature coconuts is regarded as the best for human consumption, large volumes of mature coconut water are available as a waste product from copra and coconut milk/cream production (5, 6, 17). This alone puts it well ahead of much of the competition, as you can be assured that it is free of pesticides and fertilizers. Suspicions formed by these data should be further investigated by documentary and audit checks. Coconut water extraction, formulation, processing and storage can also affect the flavour. Data is presented on the variances in natural composition, maturity, processing-induced compositional changes, adulterations, product recalls, classical and instrumental methods of analysis and on the available composition standards of coconut water. Most plants can be classified according to their photosynthetic cycles as C3 or C4 depending on the number of carbon atoms in first molecules formed. In recent UK surveillance of imported products described as coconut water 60% (7 of 12 samples) were found to contain added sugar albeit the sample size was small, and some of the implicated brand owners questioned the analytical procedure (13). Coconut oil contains no chole… It was possible to detect added single sugars with limits of detection (LOD) in the range 1.9–2.6%, detection of added mixtures of sugars and HFCS were more difficult, (total samples examined = 155). Imaizumi et al. According to Konan et al. There are some health benefits to drinking coconut water, as it contains vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes. Further analytical investigations might involve Raman, FTIR or 1H NMR spectroscopy albeit access to chemometrics and a suitable database of authentic and non-authentic spectra will be necessary. Assumed <6 months old; data adapted from (14) and (16). Coconut water is a relatively low-calorie drink with far less sugar compared to many soft or fizzy drinks. So coconut water is a type of juice. Coconut water contains a unique combination of B vitamins, vitamin C, micronutrients, and phytohormones that are exceptionally beneficial to your health. A multi-residue Liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometry/Mass spectrometry method has been developed for ten legal and illegal pesticides used in coconut production (33). The RASFF does not record authenticity issues. From 10-13 months, the sugar levels decrease and coconut water tastes less sweet. As the coconut matures, the liquid contains a bit more sugar and gets mostly absorbed into the meat of the coconut.Juvenile (also called tender coconut water) contains more anti-oxidants than mature coconut water. The content of macro and micronutrients found in tender coconut water can lower lipids, protect the heart and liver 17, 18 . (, FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius, Standard for Aqueous Coconut Products, Coconut Milk and Coconut Cream (CODEX STAN 240-2003), Codex Alimentarius, Rome, FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius, General Standard for Fruit Juices and Nectars (CODEX STAN 247-2005), Codex Alimentarius, Rome. A provisional guideline was developed in 2017 and was adopted as a “full” guide in 2019. Turbidity, which tends to increase with maturity, may also serve as a visual screening mechanism (young coconut water should be visually clear) and pH data in the above studies may also assist. To provide a guide to establishing the authenticity and the potability of samples of coconut water. It is sometimes referred to as “coconut juice” (e.g., in the Codex Alimentarius standard, see below) and, erroneously, as coconut milk which is a white liquid made from the grated fresh kernel ( 1 ). These advantages make it our top choice. Providing 79 kilojoules (19 kilocalories) of food energy in a 100-millilitre (3 1 ⁄ 2-US-fluid-ounce) amount, coconut water is 95% water and 4% carbohydrates, with protein and total fat content under 1% each (table). One group (the control) received bottled drinking water, the second group received coconut water, the third received mauby and the fourth group, a mixture of coconut water and mauby. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Suspicions of non-compliance might, at this stage, be further investigated by documentary checks and a review of the audits of the supply chain. Of the 17 brands examined, 11 (65%) appeared to contain exogenous sugars (53). Sulfite addition and processing to 136°C were effective to prevent pinking and maintain the levels of the main organic compounds. A summary of these standards is in Table 3. A draft standard was then produced for packaged natural coconut water (41). Annu. Coconut water does not improve markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and performance in a subsequent time trial compared with water alone. More advanced approaches have been proposed including Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, NMR in combination with chemometrics or GC-MS. Purkayastha et al. Coconut water contains sugars, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, enzymes, volatile aromatic compounds and other biochemical compounds (14). A FAO guide is available on good practice for the small-scale production of bottled coconut water in coconut growing areas (22). Better than sports drinks, coconut water provides athletes a natural potassium and magnesium-rich drink that rehydrates the body while reducing inflammation and balancing blood sugar. (5), the three most popular cultivars worldwide in 2011 were West African Tall, Malaysian Yellow Dwarf and “PB121” Hybrid. Not to be confused with high-fat coconut milk or oil, coconut water is a clear liquid in the fruits center that is tapped from young, green coconuts. The predominant type is lauric acid (47%), with myristic and palmitic acids present in smaller amounts, which have been shown in research to raise harmful LDL levels. The FAO good practice guidelines mentioned above (22) for the application of “middle-level” technology, for the small-scale production of chilled bottled coconut water in St. Vincent and Jamaica gave physicochemical characteristics of pH (5–5.4) and Brix (5–6.5). Stand-alone determination of the carbon stable isotope ratios of the bulk sample and/or of its component sugars will provide almost certain proof of adulteration with exogenous sugars if ratios significantly above around –21‰ are found. The standards summarized in Table 3 rely for the most part on classical analytical techniques. Some companies add fruit juice or coffee to it. The FAO guide gives harvesting and processing precautions to avoid contamination or spoilage and recommends several compositional standards (see below). Thus, to date, no comprehensive international compositional standards have been set for coconut water or for the methods of its production and preservation for retail sale worldwide. showed good correlation between the data obtained by NMR, FTIR and GC-MS in a quality prediction study on the effects of L-ascorbic acid addition to micro-filtered coconut water (44). I am just guessing that I could get a lot of opinions here about vaccinations and fluoridated water, too. Unlike other juices, unflavored coconut water is … The volume of coconut water per nut and its composition were studied by Jackson et al. The various processing methods and use of additives affect the chemical composition and the organoleptic properties of products. The variation in composition under different thermal processing conditions, with and without the addition of sulfite, was studied by Sucupira et al. It also contains inorganic ions that boost your body’s antioxidant system . By analogy with the work of Elfein and Raezke on honey (59) and given the protein content of coconut water the use of the carbon isotope ratio of the extracted protein as an internal standard would be worth experimental exploration. Coconut water is composed of important sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and phytohormones (plant hormones that control their growth and development). Richardson et al. This review summarizes the health benefits of Tender Coconut Water (TCW). European sales of coconut water seem likely to increase from a low baseline. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. Coconut water can be distinguished from fruit juices and many soft drinks by its appearance (including turbidity), organoleptic qualities, lower soluble solids (°Brix), sugars profile, higher pH and lower acidity (Table 1 and Figure 1), taking due account of its potassium, L-malic and citric acid contents. This practically sterile liquid which is prized for its delicate, albeit labile, flavor when fresh, has had a recent dramatic increase in global demand. Coconut oil is 100% fat, 80-90% of which is saturated fat. Prades A., Dornier M., Diop N., Pain J.-P. (, Campbell-Falck D., Thomas T., Falck T.M., Tutuo N., Clem K. (, Konan B.R., Konan J.L., Tetchi F., Assa R.R., Amani G. (, Centre for the Promotion of Imports (CBI) Netherlands Enterprise Agency, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (, Prades A., Assa R.R.A., Dornier M., Pain J.-P., Boulanger R. (, Kailaku S.I., Syah A.N.A., Risfaheri R., Setiawan B., Sulaeman A. When faced with these shortages, physicians have had to improvise with the available resources, or simply do without. Cross breeding of these varieties has resulted in numerous cultivars. The inner part (endosperm) consists of a white kernel within which is a liquid, “coconut water”. The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content. (, Arunachalam V., Rajesh M.K. The coconut fruit alone is a powerhouse of nutrients with a fleshy white part which can also be the source of milk and the refreshing coconut water. This requirement is reproduced in national standards, for example that of Bhutan (38). (This is not to be confused with coconut milk, which is, well, milky in color and made by grinding and squeezing the flesh of a much older coconut.) Most commercial products are blends of coconut water from various undeclared sources including amounts of fragrant varieties (7) and in many cases without a statement about added sugar or other additives (18). It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Naturally refreshing, coconut water has a sweet, nutty taste. Over the years with a rise in lactose intolerance and veganism, coconuts have been enjoying quite the attention for being a healthy source of water, milk, cream, sugar, vinegar, and flour. However, several local standards have been drafted. Validation of the Free Fatty Acid Test Kit for the Measurement of the Free Fatty Acid Content of Vegetable Oils, Fish Oils, Animal Fats (Tallows), Meat and Fish Meals, and Potato Chips and Grain-Based Snack Products: Multi-Frequency Ultrasonic Extraction of Anthocyanins from Blueberry Pomace and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity, Co-pigmentation of caffeic acid and catechin on wine color and the effect of ultrasound in model wine solutions, Screening of 154 Veterinary Drug Residues in Foods of Animal Origin Using LC-MS/MS, First Action 2020.04, Natural Sugar composition and other variances, https://www.cbi.eu/market-information/processed-fruit-vegetables-edible-nuts/coconut-water/europe, http://www.worldatlas.com/articles/the-world-leaders-in-coconut-production, https://www.beveragedaily.com/Article/2014/04/15/Vita-Coco-Strong-UK-rival-can-help-build-250m-coconut-water-category, https://www.thegrocer.co.uk/soft-drinks/infographic-the-uk-coconut-water-market-at-a-glance/541126.article, https://www.thegrocer.co.uk/buying-and-supplying/categories/soft-drinks/infographic-the-uk-coconut-water-market-at-a-glance/541126.article, https://www.thegrocer.co.uk/buying-and-supplying/categories/soft-drinks/fsa-probe-finds-widespread-addition-of-undeclared-sugar-in-coconut-water/558787.article#commentsJump, http://ititropicals.com/young-coconuts-versus-mature-coconuts-the-facts/, https://ititropicals.com/wp-content/uploads/iTi-White-Paper-on-Added-Sugars-and-Other-Ingredients-to-Coconut-Water.pdf, https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/rasff_en, http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2001/112/2014-10-05, http://www.bafps.da.gov.ph/images/Approved_Philippine_Standards/PNS-BAFS28-2006-BukoJuice.pdf, https://law.resource.org/pub/crs/ibr/cc.crs.3.2010.pdf, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, 100% buko juice refers to unmodified natural aqueous liquid of 6–9-month-old coconut, Buko juice with the addition of potable water (not more than 20%) ± permitted sweeteners, Undiluted natural untreated clear liquid endosperm of the coconut, harvested 7–9 months after pollination (no solid endosperm), Natural aqueous liquid endosperm of the 5–6-month-old coconut, without addition of solid endosperm, Natural aqueous liquid endosperm of the 12-month-old coconut, without addition of solid endosperm, Nisin (to a limit prescribed in Indian law). Subscribe Sign In. The drupe envelope (mesocarp or husk), is extensively marketed after processing as rope, carpets, geotextiles and growing media (1). Overall the AIJN sets a greater number of guideline parameters than the other standards cited above and although numerical values differ they are generally within the same order of magnitudes. Indonesia has the world’s largest production, followed by the Philippines and India. Three alerts were for additives (sulfites or benzoic acid), one for inadequate thermal processing and three for milk protein allergens. Good Source of Several Nutrients. A weight of evidence approach should be taken to assess coconut water authenticity bearing in mind the above conclusions. The European Fruit Juice Association (AIJN) has been working on a reference guideline for coconut water. Search for other works by this author on: Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC), Queen’s Road, Food Forensics: Stable Isotopes as a Guide to Authenticity and origin. The unexpected and unlabelled presence of a major allergen such as milk is a risk to persons with milk allergy (60) and a potential offence under food labelling law. It is sometimes referred to as “coconut juice” (e.g., in the Codex Alimentarius standard, see below) and, erroneously, as coconut milk which is a white liquid made from the grated fresh kernel (1). It contains easily digested carbohydrates in the form of sugar and electrolytes. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Coconut water is known to be adulterated by a variety of means (see Figure 2). Raman, FTIR or 1H NMR spectroscopy with chemometrics have been applied to investigate coconut water authenticity. Assumed to be 12 months old; data adapted from (1, 14, 16). The authors are grateful to Julia Glotz (Former Managing Editor “THE GROCER” and now a freelance writer & editor based in London) for drawing our attention to the authenticity of coconut water. 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